Top 10 Backend Development Languages

Application development typically consists of two parts. One is client-side, and the second is server-side development.

The Client-side serves the users. Indeed, they can witness all frontend operations. However, the server-side couldn’t be seen or approached by the users, and these are coders who deal with the backend.

To build ideal and interactive application software, selecting the right backend development language is as important as the frontend language.

So, this article will provide a detailed overview, advantages and limitations of the best backend development languages. These details would assist the developers and enterprises about what server-side language is the right match for their software.

What is a Backend?

Backend is comprised of the components of an application that the app users couldn’t access. This server-side code could only be operated by the developers. The backend script usually consists of one or more server-side programming languages and manages the databases and server-centric operations.

Python, JavaScript, PHP and Java are the notable backend development languages that coders can utilize for their projects.

Top 10 Backend Development Languages

Here are the top backend development languages with all essential details that are needed to shortlist the suitable languages.

1. JavaScript

JavaScript is one of the most high-level and multi-paradigm programming languages that is known for both client and backend app development. Stack Overflow’s Developer Survey ranked this free and open-source language at the top of the most popular technologies. In this regard, JavaScript received 64.96% votes from survey participants.

However, to use JavaScript for backend development, coders need to use its server-side environment Node.JS and a framework called Express.JS. Indeed, both of them play a crucial role when it comes to building a backend with the JavaScript language.

The big enterprises that trust JavaScript for server-side development with the services of Node.JS are PayPal, Uber, NASA, eBay and GoDaddy.

Advantages

Here are the core advantages of using JavaScript as a backend development language:

Full-Stack Technology

JavaScript is a leading full-stack technology that confers massive free tools, code reusability benefits and great performance. It doesn’t only take less time for coding, but you also don’t need to hire expensive front and backend app development teams. Yes, full-stack developers would definitely handle your entire project with great care.

Moreover, as a full-stack backend development language, enterprises can smoothly proceed with JavaScript as both client and server-side technology. In this regard, developers can utilize Angular.JS for frontend, Node.JS with Express.JS framework as a backend and MongoDB as a database. In short, it is the perfect combo to build one of the best performing application software with JavaScript.

Highly Scalable

JavaScript is renowned for its scalability features. Businesses can extend their services vertically and horizontally by using this programming language with great ease. Properties like fast load balancing, non-blocking event loop system, and compatibility with microservices also enable JavaScript, particularly Node.JS, to conveniently extend the advanced applications.

Rich Ecosystem

The ecosystem of both server and client-side technologies of JS is vibrant. It comprises one of the best and biggest libraries. To create server-sides of applications, developers usually prefer to go with JS libraries like Socket.IO and Google Polymer. jQuery, D3.JS and Three.JS are also good libraries of JavaScript that coders can consider using.

Easy Code Maintenance

JavaScript uses an MVC structure that makes code maintenance easy for developers. To keep the programming script clean and easy to understand, it divides it into three parts: data (model), its display for users (view) and clients’ action-oriented operations (controller).

Big & Supportive Community

As an old programming language, JavaScript also owns a big and very supportive community. Around 186341 developers claimed on StackShare about using JavaScript. It is also seamless to find source code for JavaScript projects on the internet. To get solutions for your queries, you can consider joining the communities like DigitalPoint, SitePoint, Stack Overflow, FreeCodeCamp and much more.

Disadvantages

There is massive open-source JS libraries support available for backend development. But it has been noticed that most of these resources don’t have the proper documentation and quality. These free libraries and sources are not enough to set high-quality standards for an application.

Although JavaScript is an old language, but it still lacks the developers that deal with its backend. Yes, we are referring to the Node.JS coders. Because of the high demand for Node.JS backend development, it is challenging to find experienced Node.JS software engineers nowadays.

The excess callback responses also make it challenging for developers to deal with the code maintenance in some cases.

2. Python

Python is also an object-oriented, multi-purpose and secure backend development language that came into existence in 1991. From the last few years, it is becoming a popular choice for both SMEs and large enterprises when it comes to backend development. It has beaten Java and got second position among the most rated programming languages of the TIOBE Index 2021. According to the TIOBE Index, Python is also close to the first rank and will beat the C language soon.

It is also very popular among professional developers. The Stack Overflow Developer Survey 2021 also gave it the 3rd position because of 48.24% votes. It won this slot in a group of the most popular technologies, and 83,052 respondents participated in this survey.

The notable applications that are using Python for backend development are Disqus, Dropbox, Reddit and Udemy.

Advantages

Here are the core advantages of Python:

Data Security

Data security is one of the major concerns of companies, but there are only a few backend development languages that provide proper safety in this regard. Luckily, Python is a trustworthy name for granting complete data and cybersecurity. Its easy syntax makes it simple for coders to script Python automation security tasks. Developers can also seamlessly gather the Regex or regular expressions with this backend language’s libraries to recognize the hacking attacks.

Pen testing, networking port scanning, approach to mail servers and pyperclip utilization are also some extraordinary Python properties that aid coders to deal with security-related threats.

Frameworks Availability

Typically, novices only consider Django as a Python framework, but in actuality, there are too many frameworks that you can use for Python. Yes, Python has a good variety of frameworks, including Hug, Flask, CherryPy and Bottle. So, coders wouldn’t have to rely on a single framework when they develop with Python.

Less Coding

Python is the favourite backend language of newbies because it is not easy to understand but also needs less coding. This less and simple coding also leads to great productivity while building and launching an application software.

IoT and Machine Learning Advantages

Python offers many advantages to IoT and machine learning because of features like vast and third-party library support, script readability, web scraping, and strong visualization. Scikit-learn, Keras and TensorFlow are the popular libraries that support machine learning activities while using Python.

Disadvantages

Python is a good choice for building mobile applications. It doesn’t offer enough reliable characteristics for mobile computing as it offers for web app development.

This backend development language also eats up more memory. That is why it is not a good option for memory-oriented operations.

Backward database to approach the layers, run time errors, unavailability of modern designs and lazy execution are also some disadvantages of Python.

3. Go

Compared to the above backend development languages, Go is a new programming technology that was launched in 2009. This object-oriented, functional, and statically-typed language holds the 14th rank among the top 20 programming languages according to TIOBE Index 2021. It also stands at the 4th slot in Stack Overflow’s list of the most wanted technologies.

Around 2487 companies shared on StackShare about using Go for their app development. Delivery Hero, Slack, Lyft and Twitch are the prominent companies that consume this backend language for their app operations.

Advantages

Here are common advantages of Go as a backend development language:

Convenient to Use

Go language, also known as Golang, is easy to understand for newbies because of its straightforward syntax and similarity with other backend development languages. Yes, if you have a good grip over languages like C++ and C#, then operating with Go would be seamless for you.

Built-In Testing Tools

Another Go advantage is it’s ready to use the testing tool. Developers can also conduct parallel testing by using distinct Go APIs. These testing and marking capabilities also lead to build and deploy the apps without errors.

Fast & Open-Source

It is also fast to build, deploy, administer and launch applications with Golang. It speeds up the development process and boosts the marketing activity, and gives it a real edge over competitors. On the other hand, Golang is also open-source and has good backing from Google. The open-source nature of Go also enables the programmers to fix any problem by utilizing the available resources.

Smart Library

The Golang developers who are also known as ‘Gophers’, can also benefit from the smart library of this backend programming language. Remarkably, the smart standard library of Go assists the developers in making applications with terrific interface, compilation and data structure support.

Disadvantages

Golang is a comparatively new language that is why it doesn’t have enough resources and libraries. In most cases, coders need to build their own libraries to create an app with Go.

This backend language doesn’t provide appropriate support for error handling. In addition, its simplicity also annoys the developers.

As a young language, it still has much room for improvement, including memory management, garbage collection and much more.

4. Swift

Swift is a powerful general-purpose development language that is mainly used to replace Objective-C. In the beginning, Swift was only launched to facilitate iOS applications programming, but right now, businesses are also using it for Android, Windows and Linux. Though it supports both front and server-side development but after the release of Swift 5, it is becoming a popular backend development language among programmers.

With 5.1% votes amongst the most popular technologies as per Stack Overflow’s Developer Survey, it left Objective-C behind. Indeed, many enterprises that are using Objective-C are willing to replace it with Swift because of its modern and safety features.

Prominent tech giants that are using Swift are Apple, Walmart, CRED and Alibaba Travels.

Advantages

Here are the dominating benefits of using Swift:

Interoperability with Objective-C

It is still an expensive and challenging venture to move entirely from Objective-C to Swift. That is why Swift grants an opportunity to coexist with Objective-C. Surely, it has excellent interoperability with Objective-C, and its advanced toolkits and features could be easily added to the codebase of Objective-C.

Automatic Reference Counting (ARC)

Swift also introduced the Automatic Reference Counting (ARC) function for app development. It is usually used for garbage collection, but the best thing is the memory management tool that can work without arresting your CPU. So, it improves your app’s efficiency. It is also prevalent because it is the first time any iOS app development language has offered this garbage collection tool to the coding community.

Multi-Device Support

It supports all Apple, Windows, and Linux devices, including Apple TV, iPads, Mac, Apple Watch, MacBooks and much more. Swift also aims to provide reliable support to Android devices.

Less Memory Footprint

Developers use different libraries, including dynamic and static ones, to build an application. These files increase the load duration because of the big file size. However, after the launch of the 5.0 version of Swift, it has become easy to leave a reduced memory footprint. Yes, after its release, Swift is providing built-in dynamic libraries to its users and overcoming the need for third-party libraries.

Disadvantages

As we know, Swift came into existence in 2014, and it is still a young backend development language. So, it is challenging to find seasoned Swift developers and communities to support this language.

Despite the fact, Swift backs the Linux and Windows applications, but in actuality, it still performs better for iOS apps. Its assistance for known app development platforms like Flutter, Xamarin, Android Studio, and React Native is still not trustworthy.

Swift also doesn’t confer enough interoperability support for IDEs and third-party libraries. It is not compatible with aged iOS devices.

5. Objective-C

Objective-C is also one of the pioneer backend development languages that belong to the C family. This programming language is mainly used for scripting apps for macOS and iOS. This object-oriented language was designed in 1984 to enhance the reusability of scripts and making codes for iOS and OSX software applications.

Although many experts think Objective-C is dead now, but it is still charming for many tech companies. Around 2155 businesses stated on StackShare that they use Objective-C. Notable businesses that use this server-side development language are Instacart, Slack and Apple.

Advantages

Objective-C lacks many advanced features, but it is still an appealing backend language with the following benefits:

Old & Tested

Indeed, Objective-C is an old programming language that is why it has good community support and resources to use. Especially if we talk about the updates, then developers are more familiar with them compared to Swift. Similarly, as a well-tested language, it also owns a massive number of compatible frameworks.

Interoperability with C++

It is pretty easy for you if you have built an application with any C language C++ and want to amend it using Objective-C. Yes, Objective-C has great interoperability with C++. By the way, it is also essential to know that Swift doesn’t have any compatibility with C++.

Stable & API Support

Swift app becomes challenging to operate with new updates and changes. However, Objective-C is a more stable language where upgrades and new versions don’t affect the application. Moreover, developers can also conveniently connect Objective-C with private APIs.

Disadvantages

This is a complex language and hard to learn for newbies.

Filename collisions, slow processing and compilation, extensive code and poor memory management are also some disadvantages of using Objective-C.

6. Ruby

Ruby is one of the most notable, interpreted and multi-purpose backend development languages that was founded in 1990. It is not only an excellent object-oriented language, but Stack Overflow also listed it among the highest paying technologies of 2021. According to Glassdoor, the yearly salary of an average Ruby developer could be around $89,868.

To know more about Ruby frameworks, please read the Best 10 Ruby Frameworks.

Advantages

See the major Ruby advantages below:

Secure & Flexible

Ruby typically uses a well-documented framework, ‘Rails’, that makes it invulnerable in many cases. Rail’s programming community also gives great importance to every security-centric matter. Indeed, Ruby is very flexible to use when you work with it by using a compatible framework. Tremendous plugin support also makes server-side development seamless with Ruby.

Highly Productive

It is very productive to build applications with Ruby. It doesn’t only consume less time, but the availability of packaged and third-party libraries support makes programming very productive. Ruby Gem also aids the coders to handle these libraries and formats efficiently.

Community Support

Ruby’s community is snowballing. Novices can quickly get solutions related to their Ruby queries from these online communities. It has 18.5k stars on GitHub, and hopefully, it will grow in future.

Disadvantages

  • It is hard to debug the code with Ruby
  • Slow processing, runtime errors and low scalability are also disadvantages of using Ruby.

7. PHP

If you are in search of a reliable backend development language for web applications, then you must consider PHP. It is known for building lightweight and easy to handle web applications, mainly when it comes to eCommerce websites.

Advantages

Here are the core advantages of PHP:

Cost-Efficient

Developers don’t need to purchase any license when they build a website with PHP. Yes, it is cheap to develop a web application with PHP, and the charges of PHP developers are also not that high. Similarly, it is seamless to use basic databases like MySQL and PostgreSQL for PHP projects.

Gives More Control

If you are willing to make an application with more controls, then PHP is the right option. You can change everything here by making transformations in the code.

Integration Compatibilities

It is simple to integrate plugins, API and other advanced features with PHP. It also supports a large number of platforms and devices.

Disadvantages

  • PHP is not an appropriate choice for sizeable content-centric web applications.
  • It has poor debugging and error handling tools.

8. C#

C# is a multi-paradigm and statically typed server-side language that is also used for client-side development. It is conventionally used for developing games, cloud computing services, desktop and mobile applications. It is also a little young language because it was launched in 2000.

Advantages

Here are major advantages of C#:

Cross-Platform & Object-Oriented

C# is a cross-platform language that doesn’t waste your time writing code for different operating systems and devices. In the same token, its object-oriented nature enables the programmers to script reusable and maintainable codes.

Automated Garbage Collection

C# has a fully automated garbage collection system that keeps the code and application clean. Businesses also don’t face app crash problems because of the availability of garbage collection tools.

Memory Backup

Another dominating edge that C# has over the other languages is its strong memory backup. So, with C#, you wouldn’t have to worry about data loss, and even it is better than C++.

Disadvantages

  • C# mainly depend on the .NET framework that makes it less adaptable.
  • This language also requires the Windows platform to perform app development.

9. Java

Java is also a known name among the top backend development languages. This multi-threaded and open-source language facilitates the developers with a large number of backend development tools and frameworks.

Advantages

Here are the essential advantages of using Java:

Open-Source Libraries

Java confers the applications a variety of open-source libraries support. In this regard, it provides features like unit testing, cryptographic libraries, JSON parsing and HTML parsing libraries etc.

Secure

The availability of APIs and features like authentication, public key structure, cryptographic libraries and access control keeps the Java applications secure from all kinds of cyber threats.

Rich Ecosystem

With Java, developers get a rich ecosystem. This ecosystem consists of robust frameworks like Apache Struts, Hibernate and Spring and other tools, including Eclipse IDE and Maven.

Disadvantages

  • This backend language may be slow
  • Java consumes more memory space.

10. Perl

Perl is another notable high-level backend development language that was launched in 1988 by Larry Wall. This advanced programming language is helpful for making speech recognition apps and dealing with cloud data & server web pages.

Advantages

The significant benefits of using Perl are listed below:

No Compiler Need

The best thing about Perl is that it doesn’t need any outside compiler. With the elementary knowledge of programming, you can efficiently deal with this programming language.

Versatile & Portable

In Perl’s environment, coders don’t need to create separate programs for every task. Also, developers can run the code of this backend language on any platform. The only condition is the availability of Python here.

Disadvantages

  • It is challenging to conduct maintenance operations with Perl
  • Perl involves distinct mathematical symbols that is why coders have good knowledge of them.
  • It is tough to fix bugs with this backend language.

Conclusion

This article thoroughly enlightens the top backend development languages with their core positive and negative aspects. It is hard to shortlist a single language for the title of the best. Therefore, enterprises and app developing communities should choose the most appropriate server-side language according to their needs.

FAQ

What is a Backend?

Backend is comprised of the components of an application that the app users couldn’t access. The backend script usually consists of one or more server-side programming languages and manages the databases and server-centric operations.

What are the top 10 backend languages?

– Javascript
– Python
– Ruby
– C#
– Swift
– Objectice-C
– Java
– Perl
– Go
– PHP


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