Top 10 Backend Languages You Should Know About

This article will discuss the best ten backend languages, their core features, advantages, and disadvantages.

Becoming a backend developer is very compelling! According to Indeed, the average backend developer salary in the United States is $121,875 per year.

According to GitHub’s State of the Octoverse 2020 Report, Javascript, Python, and Java remain the most popular backend languages worldwide.

Frontend technologies attracted a lot of attention, but it wouldn’t be possible with backend web development as the backend enables the frontend experience.

Whether it is about database interactions, performance, or setting the program or application’s logic, the backend is an integral part of programming.

If you are looking for the best backend web development, here are the top 10 backend languages highly valuable to developers.

What is Backend?

Backend in computing is a part of a software or website that is invisible to users. It is the opposite of the front end, which refers to a website or software user interface (UI).

While the frontend is referred to as the presentation layer, the backend serves as a data access layer.

Websites today are dynamic, and content is created spontaneously. Web pages consist of scripts, and every time a user accesses the page, the scripts run on the server.

They are responsible for displaying the content on the user’s web browser. Meaning, the processes that facilitate showing the content are part of the backend.

Here are some of the processes involved in the backend:

  • Storing records in a database.
  • Using SQL queries to access data from a database.
  • Management of uploading and downloading files.
  • Running a JSP, PHP, ASP, or similar scripts to generate HTML
  • Processing incoming webpage requests
  • Using JavaScript to process user input

Apart from the last point, all the other processes listed above are server-side processes running on web servers. You can consider JavaScript to be either a frontend or backend process based on whether or not the code has an impact on the UI.

Since it is a client-side process, it runs in the web browser. The user experience is the end product of the frontend and backend working together.

Apart from the last point, all the other processes listed above are server-side processes running on web servers. You can consider JavaScript to be either a frontend or backend process based on whether or not the code has an impact on the UI.

Since it is a client-side process, it runs in the web browser. The user experience is the end product of the frontend and backend working together.

What is a Programming Language?

A computer programming language lets you provide instructions to a computer using a language designed to communicate with it.

Like the diversity in human languages, many computer programming languages exist, which programmers use to communicate with computers. Computers understand “binary” language, and when a programming language is translated into binary, it is called “compiling.”

From Python to C Language, each one has its unique set of features. However, there are usually many things common between them. Computer programming languages enable the devices to process a massive and complex amount of information efficiently effectively.

For instance, if a person is handed over 1 to 10,000 numbers in a randomized order and asked to arrange them in ascending or descending order, they are highly likely to take plenty of time and make many mistakes.

Why learn a backend programming language?

A backend programming language’s work is to handle the ‘behind the scenes’ functionality of Web applications. Its code assists in connecting the web to a database, offering virtual links, and powering the web app.

The backend development works together with the front-end to provide the finished product to the end-user. Here are some of the benefits of backend development.

  • Faster Information Sharing

The database, web server, and application comprise the most crucial elements of a website. When a user accesses the user interface of a website, they should be able to give their login ID and password; the runtime is used to check the user ID and password. Likewise, every piece of information submitted by the user is processed in the backend application.

Often, it retrieves information from the archive and sends the data to the web interface for viewing through the app. Therefore, the backend of a website works as its framework and allows the sharing of knowledge.

  • Functions in Various Environments

The majority of organizations launch web applications and websites in diverse environments. For example, some companies install online applications in the cloud, while others select websites functioning on database servers.

An increasing number of businesses today are combining all the hosting services to leverage enhanced scalability and capacity. How a Web server is set up depends on the network. Additionally, the programmers regularly disseminate workload server-side across many devices.

Due to the differing hosting environments, personalizing the website backend has become critical for developers.

  • Affects the User Experience of the Website

In the long run, the UI and accessibility of a website rely on its success. While the backend manages everything needed to enable a website’s functioning, the UI of a website is impacted by the backend technology’s reliability.

If there is an issue with the backend code, it can result in the website running slow, some performance-related issues, and even website crashing. Also, the minor loopholes in the backend code can lead to the website being defenseless against ransomware attacks.

Top 10 Backend Languages

Here are the best ten backend languages.

Backend languageDescriptionPopular Apps
JavaA high-level, object-oriented, class-based back-end language created to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.Spotify
Cash App
RubyIt is a general-purpose, high-level, and interpreted backend language. AirBnb
Crazy Egg
PythonIt is a high-level, object-oriented, interpreted backend language with dynamic semantics.Reddit
PHPIt is a general-purpose scripting language mainly designed for web development. Wikipedia
JavaScriptIs a structured interpreted programming language, high-level script withdynamic typing and multiparadigm. Netflix
SQLIt is a domain-specific language utilized in programming and created to handle data in an RDMS.Postgres
SLQ Server
RustIt is a multi-paradigm backend language created for performance and safety, particularly safe concurrency. One Signal
10x Genomics
C/C++It is a general-purpose, procedural backend programming language holding structured programming, recursion, and lexical variable scope.Adobe Photoshop
NodeJSIt is an open-source JavaScript runtime.PayPal
SolidityIt is an object-oriented backend language for writing smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain.Uniswap
Dark Forest
CoinBase Wallet

Want to know more? Keep reading.

1. Java

Java is an object-oriented, class-based, and high-level programming language. Java is created to reduce implementation dependencies between modules significantly.

The language is designed to allow developers to “write once, run anywhere,” which means that the Java code will work on any platform that supports Java without recompilation requirements upon compilation.

Java Features

  • Java is intended to build object-oriented apps.
  • It is one of the easiest programming languages.
  • It’s a multithreaded programming language with auto memory management.
  • Being network-centric, Java enables distributed computing.
  • You can code once and run it on nearly any computing platform.
  • It is designed for the Internet’s distributed environment.
  • Some already developed programs in one machine can be implemented in another due to Java’s platform-independent nature.


  • Create highly personalized services or applications by merging services or apps using the Java language.
  • Build programs to function within a web browser while accessing the web services available.
  • Develop efficient and effective apps for remote processors, mobile phones, wireless modules, microcontrollers, consumer products.
  • Devise server-side applications for HTML forms processing, polls, stores, online forums, and much more.
  • Write on one platform, and run the software on virtually any platform.

Java Disadvantages

  • Java doesn’t offer a backup facility.
  • It is slow and performs poorly.
  • Needs considerable memory space.
  • Requires complex and expansive codes.
  • It does not provide an attractive look or consistent graphical user interface.

2. Ruby

Ruby is a general-purpose, high-level, and interpreted programming language that supports multiple programming paradigms, such as functional, procedural, and object-oriented programming.

Developed in the mid-90s, it uses garbage collection and just-in-time compilation; it is also dynamically typed. Other programming languages like Lisp, Perl, BASIC, Ada, and Eiffel influenced Ruby.

Ruby Features

  • It is a completely object-oriented programming language.
  • It is very flexible, and you can quickly add, redefine, or remove existing parts from it.
  • Ruby doesn’t require variable declaration and usually prefers English keywords.
  • You can define Ruby methods through keyword augments.
  • It is a case-sensitive programming language.
  • In the case of a lost method, Ruby uses the name of the lost method to call the missing method.

Ruby Advantages

  • Ruby is almost similar to spoken languages.
  • It is a dynamic programming language and doesn’t impose strict rules about building features.
  • It is open-source, which makes it free for copying, using, modifying, and distribute.
  • The purpose of this programming language is to facilitate simple and efficient web application development, which means there’s less work to do.
  • It is capable of dynamically loading extension libraries.

Ruby Disadvantages

  • Ruby has a rather slow boot speed and can take plenty of time to start.
  • It also offers users slow runtime speed. A slow runtime speed, in the long run, can cause problems.
  • Since Ruby frequently uses ActiveRecord, its hard dependency results in a disadvantage.
  • There is a risk of requests getting queued behind an active request, which can lead to issues with performance.

3. Python

Python is a general-purpose, high-level, and interpreted programming language designed to focus on code readability using its significant indentation.

Programmers can write logical, clear code for both small-scale projects with the help of its object-oriented approach and language constructs.

Just like Ruby, it is garbage-collected and dynamically typed. Python supports various programming paradigms, like functional, object-oriented, and structured programming.

Because of its comprehensive standard library, it is also considered a “batteries included” language.

Python Features

  • It is easy to learn and execute due to its straightforward syntax, which is similar to English.
  • A few lines of code can make Python conduct complex work.
  • As a cross-platform language, it can run efficiently on Windows, Mac, UNIX, Linux, and others.
  • It is free and open-source, so anybody can download it for free.
  • You can easily integrate it with other languages such as Java, C, and C++.

Python Advantages

  • Python can be the best choice for beginners as it requires fewer codes than Java or C languages.
  • Debugging becomes easier with Python executing the code line by line.
  • It supports a massive library where you can get all the functions you need for your work.
  • It is OSI approved, which means it is open-source and free to use.
  • Python doesn’t require you to modify your code to run the same program on multiple platforms.

Python Disadvantages

  • This programming language trades off its simplicity with higher memory usage, which can be a con, especially when you’re looking for memory optimization.
  • Since it executes the code line by line, it becomes slow.
  • Client-side or mobile apps don’t experience Python because of its slow processing, making it preferable for server-side programming.
  • Being dynamically typed, it can face runtime errors as the data type is susceptible to change unexpectedly.

Make sure you read the article Top 10 Backend Frameworks to understand Django, which is a great way to accelerate development using Python.

4. PHP

PHP is considered one of the best general-purpose languages for web development. Its code is generally web-server-processed by a PHP interpreter used as a module, a Common Gateway Interface (CGI), or a daemon.

You can also use PHP to program tasks beyond web context, like robotic drone control and graphical applications.

PHP Features

  • You can execute PHP scripts faster than scripts written in languages like ASP and JSP.
  • Offers comfortable coding to programmers with understandable syntax.
  • It is available for free. PHP is open-source.
  • It is platform-independent and supports Windows, Mac, UNIX, and LINUX operating systems.
  • This language supports ODBC, SQLite, MySQL, and other major databases.


  • PHP supports model-view-controller architecture and simplifies web app development and maintenance.
  • PHP frameworks provide code snippets, features, and tools to assist developers in boosting the development of custom web applications.
  • Most of its frameworks enable programmers to use a wide variety of relational databases.
  • It allows automating common web development tasks, saving both time and energy.
  • As it is an open-source programming language, you can choose from multiple open-source web frameworks.

PHP Disadvantages

  • Since the individual frameworks can differ in terms of community strength, it lacks appropriate and prompt support.
  • Instead of PHP, a programmer needs to learn the PHP framework, which needs both time and effort.
  • Because it provides many powerful tools and features, it often affects the speed and performance of websites.
  • Developers are devoid of the option to alter the frameworks’ core behavior.

5. JavaScript

Also called JS, JavaScript is a multi-paradigm, just-in-time compiler, and high-level programming language that complies with the ECMAScript specification.

It supports imperative, functional, and event-driven programming styles and has APIs that help work with standard data structures, regular expressions, dates, and text.

While it is somewhat similar to Java, including syntax, name, and standard libraries, both the languages highly differ in design.

JS Features:

  • Since JavaScript is designed to handle data in the browser only, it is automatically a lightweight programming language.
  • Write the script once and run it anywhere without affecting the result of the script.
  • It is a prototype-based language for scripting, which means prototypes are used instead of inheritance or classes.
  • It uses a functional style, and you can use functions in JavaScript as objects and pass them down to other functions too.
  • As a client-side language, it offers several features to aid developers in dividing processing between server and browser, decreasing server load.

JS Advantages

  • You can increase web page functionality by writing snippets for third-party add-ons.
  • Its rich interface allows creating features like drag and drop, as well as parts like sliders, boosting the experience and UI of a site.
  • Developers can incorporate JavaScript into any web page unlike other scripting languages like PHP.
  • Regular updates every year make it a highly efficient scripting language.
  • It is easier to learn as it takes inspiration from Java, unlike other languages such as C++.

JS Disadvantages

  • Instead of supporting multiple inheritances, it only supports single inheritance.
  • The browser does not show errors, making it tricky for developers to determine any issue.
  • Prone to security issues as users can view the JavaScript code and use it for defamatory purposes.
  • Unstable browser support requires you to run the code on different platforms before publishing.

6. SQL

SQL or Structured Query Language is commonly used for relational databases. You can use it to share and manage data, including the data organized into tables.

You can use it for query, update, and reorganizing data. It is very helpful in storing information about every client a company has worked with.

SQL Features

  • SQL is a high-level and easy-to-use programming language with its English-like structure.
  • It supports portability across computer systems.
  • SQL offers a dynamic database definition.
  • With it, you can use a wide variety of relational databases.
  • This programming language supports Java integration.

SQL Advantages

  • Retrieve a massive amount of data from a database using SQL queries.
  • Its portability allows using it in desktops, laptops, servers, as well as specific mobile phones.
  • No need for extensive coding to manage the database system, which means less coding and less work.
  • Users can create many views of the database structure using SQL.
  • The SQL databases use the same long-established standards that ANSI and ISO use.

SQL Disadvantages

  • Some of its versions have a large operating cost, making it difficult for some to access.
  • Its complex interface can be hard for some users to access.
  • To ensure vendor lock-in, some of the databases go to the proprietary extensions to standard SQL
  • Due to the hidden business rules, programmers do not get full control over the database.

7. Rust

Syntactically similar to C++ and ensuring safe concurrency, Rust is built for safety and performance. It is a multi-paradigm scripting language that guarantees memory safety by validating references.

Reference counting is optional in Rust, and it acquires memory safety without garbage collection. In 2016, it was voted the most loved programming language.

Rust Features

  • Instead of using an automated garbage collection system, Rust uses resource acquisition as an initialization convention to manage memory and other resources.
  • It doesn’t permit data races, dangling pointers, or null pointers in safe code, and is entirely designed to be memory safe.
  • Taking inspiration from the Haskell language, Rust’s type system supports “traits”, which is a mechanism similar to type classes.
  • All values have a unique owner in Rust’s ownership system where one mutable or various immutable references can exist.

Rust Advantages

  • It can access the memory and hardware directly since it doesn’t need a garbage collector to constantly function in the background, which facilitates great convenience on low-level details.
  • Anybody with prior knowledge of C can easily learn Rust; it is also easy for beginners.
  • Rust is crucial for embedded systems as it enables programmers to point out errors early and reducing the risk of future mishaps.
  • It is just as robust as C++ and offers high and fast performance, beating Python easily. Since there is no garbage collection, it leverages higher speeds.
  • Being a statically typed language, Rust allows you more simplicity by helping you keep a track of changes in the code.

Rust Disadvantages

  • Compile-time is Rust grows significantly if there are scripts with over a thousand lines.
  • It doesn’t have a garbage collection.
  • Unlike Python, the codes in Rust cannot be developed quickly.
  • You might need to use different syntaxes and skills to perform simple tasks since it is also a system programming language.
  • While it is easy to learn Rust, you will also need to be adept at C++ or other object-oriented languages.

8. C/C++

C is a procedural and general-purpose programming language, which supports recursion, lexical variable scope, and structured programming with a static type system.

It was created to be compiled to offer low-level access to language and memory constructs that efficiently map to machine instructions. It supports cross-platforming, so if you write a program while considering portability, it can be compiled for different operating systems.

C/C++ Features

  • Its diverse set of inbuilt operators facilitate writing simplified and complex C programs.
  • Developers can use C programming in multiple applications, be it system programming or photo editing applications.
  • As a statically typed language, you don’t need to check the type of a variable at run time but only during compilation.
  • Even if you’re a beginner, the C language’s functions and powerful libraries can even help a new user to code with ease.
  • Little to no change is requires to run and compile C language on any system.

C/C++ Advantages

  • You get a vast platform to perform to conduct various operations because C, being an efficient and powerful language, comprises multiple operators and data types.
  • It is considered critical for anybody who is starting to deal with programming languages and serves as the base for many programming languages like Java and Python.
  • C is machine-independent, which means you can run your code on any machine with almost no changes made to it.
  • You can make conde simpler by adding your functions to the C Standard Library.
  • Because C offers dynamic memory allocation, you can freely allocate memory at run time.

C/C++ Disadvantages

  • C programming language lacks a constructor and deconstructor.
  • You cannot simultaneously declare two variables without namespaces, and C doesn’t use the concept of namespaces.
  • It has poor security measures due to its minimum data hiding.
  • In large programs, checking code becomes complex as the compiler only displays all the issues only after the program has been written.

9. NodeJS

NodeJS is a cross-platform and open-source JavaScript runtime environment for the backend, executing JavaScript code beyond a web browser and running on the V8 engine.

Developers can use JavaScript to create command-line tools. NodeJS united web application development surrounding one programming language instead of multiple languages for client-side and server-side scripts.

NodeJS Features

  • Code execution is fast in NodeJS because it is created on the V8 JavaScript engine of Google Chrome.
  • NodeJS is deployed under the MIT license.
  • No information is buffered by its applications, and they only output the data in portions.
  • It uses a single-threaded program, which can also offer service to a higher number of requests compared to conventional servers.
  • A NodeJS based server doesn’t wait for data return from APIs, all its APIs are asynchronous.

NodeJS Advantages

  • It provides easy scalability for today’s applications and is used by major brands like Paypal, Uber, and Netflix.
  • Gives you instant results through its supercharged applications.
  • Developers can write codes on the backend and frontend as NodeJS it provides them the chance to create server-side code.
  • You get increased development speed due to it being lightweight, which means your applications’ time-to-market is significantly reduced.
  • Its caching module helps decrease code re-execution and task workload.

NodeJS Disadvantages

  • Developers frequently need to alter the access code to sync with the newest version of NodeJS API.
  • If you put a substantial CPU-based workload in its event loop, performance drops because it utilizes all of its CPU power to complete the task.
  • NodeJS experiences a high demand but has few experienced developers.
  • Many of its NPM libraries and registries are incomplete or poorly designed, which leads to ineffective monitoring for developing web applications.

10. Solidity

Solidity is a statically typed and object-oriented programming language made for writing smart contracts.

Developers use it for implementing the same on different blockchain platforms, especially on the Ethereum Virtual Machine.

Smart Contracts Give You

  • Safety, by using Cryptography and website encryption, which prevents hacking.
  • Reliability, as all your data are thoroughly encrypted and kept on a shared ledger.
  • Speed, because smart contracts take advantage of software code to computerize the work.
  • Accuracy, because automated contracts are not only affordable and fast but also evade errors occurring from manually filling multiple forms.

Solidity Advantages

  • Its syntax is similar to C++ and Javascript, which makes it simple to learn Blockchain development.
  • With Application Binary Interface (ABI) facilitation, Solidity supports different type-safe functions.
  • The improving ABI also enables carrying out multiple types of supporting roles.
  • It offers object-oriented attributes, like the multiple-level inheritance properties.

Solidity Disadvantages

  • Since there isn’t any other information source, information is only available from transactions.
  • Strings structure, Arrays, and usage are complex as Standard Library is unavailable.
  • Being a new language, it has a higher number of cons than many other languages like Javascript, C++, and Python.
  • You cannot add extra features or upgrade a contract once it is made.


So, these are the most remarkable and preferable programming languages for people who want to learn backend development.

You can choose from the extensive list of languages based on various aspects such as your learning curve, project requirements, and goals.

To better understand the frontend development, please also read the article Frontend Programming Languages


What is a backend?

Backend is the component of an application that the user does not directly access.

What are the benefits of backend development?

– High paid job;
– Runs the business logic;
– Affects the UX of the website.

What are the best ten backend languages?

– Java
– Ruby
– Python
– JavaScript
– C/C++
– Rust
– NodeJS
– Solidity

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