The Best Ten Backend Languages
Although the users have access to the front end of the application, it affects the application or software’s success or failure. What is more effective on the software’s success or failure is the application or software’s backend. It is because it is the brains of the application, and it adds small functionality to the application.
It is one of the biggest reasons why more and more backend development languages are getting popular for creating different types of applications.
Due to this issue, whenever a professional application is going to be developed, the IT department carefully analyzes the requirements and then decides to use the backend programming language.
When the right backend technology is selected, it helps in the easy development process and brings the following benefits along with it.
- The speed of development has increased.
- The application supports scalability options.
- The responsiveness of the application is exceptionally better.
Although it is a great thing to use the best backend technology in terms of compatibility, selecting one is not easy. It requires a lot of hard work to know which language might be the best for any software application.
So, we have selected the best ten backend technologies that you can use for your ease, and we have defined them so you can compare them to your requirements. By this, when you select the right language, you can develop an excellent functioning backend for your software in no time.
What is an application Backend?
Before directly jumping on to the languages, you must know a little about your application’s backend. So, here we will discuss the backend of your application and its working.
When we look at the software and applications from a developer’s perspective, we can see many things going on. There is a front end, and then there is a back end.
The logic is present, and everything like server-side operations and database functions has handled the backend. Although the front end is visible when you develop an application, most application functionality is under the backend.
Despite being the central part of the software or an application, the backend is not visible to the end-user, and the reason for this is that the frontend is made to make things look less complex and easier to use.
To better understand the backend concepts, please read the article What is a Backend and dig deep into this topic.
A word about programming languages
As our brain can understand and process some languages that we have learned over the years, the same is the case with the computer’s brain. It can break down some languages into sets of commands and then process those commands.
Those languages that are converted into sets of commands are called programming languages. These are used with specific compilers and syntax to let the computer process them.
Types of programming languages
There are two main types of programming languages, and here are the details about each of them.
High-level programming language
It is the language that has easier words for our understanding. Most of the words are commonly used in our daily conversation, so this type of language is elementary to understand, read, and examine. Here, a compiler and assembler work to translate this code to machine code that the CPU can process.
Low-level programming language
These are the languages that are directly understandable for the machine, so these are also called machine languages. These are themselves sets of commands that the compiler has to follow. However, here assembler translates these commands into machine code that is processed by the CPU.
The ten best backend programming technologies
Although there are many backend programming languages available right now, all of them are not good. So, we have selected the best ten languages that you can use for your application development process, and we also have sorted out their features and limitations. So, the following are the ten best backend development languages that you can use.
|Backend Language||Popular Apps|
|C#||Microsoft Visual Studio|
Ready to know more? Keep reading below:
The Express.JS and Node.js allow the management and running of both ends of the application, while APIs help in the quicker and easier development of applications.
|I/O features||The Express.JS and NodeJS allow the programs to handle the I/O requests and notifications from the connected apps.|
|Fewer scripting overhead||Some of the built-in features enhance the coding efficiency and improve the performance as well. The features that do this are DOM, hoops, and many more. They also improve lesser scripting overhead.|
- The event-driven functions are very complicated.
Python was created in 1991, and it has emerged as a great multi-purpose language since then. It provides a very clean and easy backend development environment. According to a Stack Overflow survey held in 2020, this was the 3rd most loved programming language by the developers.
|Easy to learn||Python provides a development environment that is very close to writing English. It is the reason why it is very easy to learn because of its high readability.|
|Many libraries are available||There are a lot of libraries available for v that make the need to write code very less. You can also use most of the libraries to enhance the tasks implemented.|
|IoT features||You can use Python for creating Raspberry Pi objects.|
|Embedded codes||The write once run anywhere (WORA) rule makes Python embedded in the source code of languages like C++.|
|Cost-Efficient||It has many developers working, and the libraries are free that makes Python development very cost-effective.|
- The database access layer is not as well developed as other languages.
- The programs developed on Python require a lot of testing and debugging.
- Python is highly dependent on 3rd party frameworks and libraries.
- If the application is interrupted, the execution time becomes very slow.
This programming language was developed in 1990 by a Japanese programming expert. The great thing about this language is that it has a syntax similar to Python and Java. Not only this, but it allows great automation capabilities. It is the reason platforms like Airbnb and Esty use this for automation purposes.
|Productivity||Because of the support of 3rd party libraries of Ruby, it is very productive. Along with the libraries, Ruby is a very easy language, and most of the time, there is no need for documentation.|
|Meta-programming||Meta-programming is one of the best features of using Ruby. It allows the programs to get and modify data from other programs. The best part is that the whole process is done on the runtime.|
|Testing features||There is a library in Ruby with testing features. It ensures the quality development of all applications.|
|Reliable and quick||The object-oriented programming method and query processing outcomes make Ruby a very quick development platform. It can develop about 40% faster than other technologies.|
- The runtime of Ruby is comparatively slower than other languages.
- The number of libraries and sources available for Ruby is not great.
- As Ruby is a new language, the current developers find it a bit difficult to learn.
- The programs coded in Ruby are difficult to debug.
It was developed in 1994, and since then, it has become the world’s best server-side development language. According to a survey by W3Tech, about 79% of the world’s websites are made using PHP.
|Easy to use||PHP is a language that you can use for many different purposes. It is very easy to use and implement, and it can easily work with modern-day requirements like database integration. It is also an excellent language for beginners because it is easy to use. The less time required to have a good grip on it also motivates the beginner developers.|
|Open-Source||PHP is an open-source language with a lot of libraries available. It means that it can provide great benefits if you are looking to develop a backend.|
|Versatile||PHP is a programming language that can run on all operating systems. Additionally, it is so versatile that the programs coded on PHP can also run on any web browser.|
|Secure||PHP has a lot of built-in security features that make it very secure as a backend development language. These security features allow mitigating several threads for better security of the system.|
|Automation||In terms of automation, PHP is a great programming language. It is because it can easily automate Authentication, URL mapping, and session management.|
|Community||PHP is a language that has a huge community of developers, and it is also versatile, so most developers know how to use it. Additionally, PHP is also very inexpensive. It is on the second last on the list of the top-paying technologies list according to a developers’ survey that Stack Overflow held in 2020.|
Although it used to be a very popular language, now it is not that popular. The reason for this is that most people do not even care about adding it to their skills.
This back-end development language is great in developing back-end, but if we compare it with modern back-end technologies, it is way far behind.
Being open-source, one of the biggest issues with PHP is that it can be misused, and this can cause the creation of buggy codes and not so well optimized.
Java was made in 1991, but it was officially published in 1995, and from that time, it has emerged as one of the best programming languages in the world. It is also ranked as the second-best programming language in the 2021 TIOBE index ranks. Additionally, it is the best option for building mobile apps.
|Scalable||The development framework of Java allows it to develop applications with the option of scalability. It is possible because it allows the server side to run several instances at once. It makes it a great backend development technology.|
|Easy Understand||The syntax used in Java programming is very simple and easy to understand. It is because it is easier to remember keywords. It makes programming, updating, and debugging very easy for developers.|
|Multi-threading supported||When we talk about using web servers, Java is the programming language that can handle different independent thread requests. It, however, requires a lot of CPU threads to work as well.|
|Open-source libraries||Suppose you are looking for the support of open source libraries. Then Java is one of the best backend programming languages. It is because it has massive libraries. These can be used to easily add all the additional server-side features to your application.|
|It has enhanced security options.||Java is a great option if you are looking to build a great system in terms of security. It is because here the security is very tight. An instance of this is that the Java virtual machine first checks the bytecode to ensure that there are no viruses, and then the process continues.|
- The programming language Java is time-consuming.
- There is no low-level programming done in Java.
- There are no commands for garbage data collection.
- Java is a language that runs better on expensive or high-end systems. It makes Java development very expensive.
- In the GUI section of the Java development applications, many necessary things like trendy interface objects and tools are missing.
C-Sharp is one of the most popular languages for making the backend of a system. It is because of its amazing features like the automation on windows servers. Apart from this, it is great because it executes codes very fast. It can also be used for game development and making CLI applications.
|Supports cross-platform development||One of the best things about C-Sharp is that it supports cross-platform development. It means that the apps developed using C-Sharp can run on different operating systems. However, for more information about cross-platform frameworks C-Sharp, you can refer to that article that discusses cross-platform development in detail.|
|Extensive compatibility||C-Sharp developed application support for backward compatibility. It makes C-Sharp the best option for the applications that are to be run on older versions of programming frameworks.|
|Garbage data and values collection||To reduce the possible errors in the application, C-Sharp has the garbage data and values collection feature. It collects all the garbage data that could disturb the values during execution. Because of this, the program can provide the best results optimally.|
|Object-oriented programming||C-Sharp is the language that supports object-oriented programming. It means that the developers can make good usage of the classes and relationships. It makes the code exceptionally easy to debug, understand, and even reuse.|
Although it is a high-level language, this created a problem that the language cannot directly interact with the hardware.
It is not great in terms of compatibility with different systems because you can only install it from a Windows computer.
Additionally, it can only run using the .Net framework. So, we can say that this technology is very inflexible if compared to the latest backend technologies.
Perl developed about 3 decades ago as this is a language that is still performing exceptionally well where it is needed. Perl’s interesting thing is that it was ranked as one of the most paying languages by a developer’s survey by Stack Overflow. Perl 5 is the version that is still widely used for prototyping and automation.
|Compatible with multiple platforms||Perl is a language that works on many different platforms like Windows, Unix, Linux, and Mac. It makes it very easy for different types of developers to work on.|
|Perl is an open-source language||Like most of the programming languages, Perl is also open source. It also provides several libraries for the ease of developers.|
|Extensibility||Perl is a language that supports extensibility. It means that you can use the C and C++ libraries. Additionally, Perl programs can also be embedded in the C and C++ programs.|
|Text processing||Perl still maintains the POSIX compliance. It means that the text processing functions of Perl are still great. It also retains the advanced features of processing socket calls.|
- The processing or programs developed in the Perl language are not as good as some other languages.
- The libraries available in Pearl lack some of the most necessary features.
- The process of bug fixing in Perl is not as easy, and it is very challenging.
- If your code is extensive, then it will not only be challenging to handle it, but it will also be very challenging for the system to handle the code.
- Scalability is not an option available when you use Perl.
- The speed of application developed on Perl is not that great.
- It is a costly language because it is an older technology, and there are not many developers available. Additionally, this language takes a lot of time to learn and get a grip on.
- The libraries available in Perl are not free as you have to pay copying charges for them.
We can call this the advanced version of the C language because it is the same, but it has some amazing additions. One of the biggest additions to C++ is that it supports object-oriented programming.
It is one of the oldest programming languages, and being a low-level language, it can interact directly with the hardware. It makes it perform very well. The best part is that you can use it to develop the latest systems without missing or lacking any necessary features.
|Portability||One of the best features of using C++ is that it is portable. The language can easily work on any different platforms operating systems, and compilers. It makes C++ great for achieving different tasks.|
|Object-oriented programming||C++ supports object-oriented programming. It makes it very easy to create different types of programs and applications. It also makes it very easy for the developers to fulfill all the application requirements by using its structured programming architecture.|
|Low-level language||C++ is a low-level language that means it does not require a lot of translation. In this way, it can easily interact with most of the hardware. It is the reason why it is used for coding most of the system’s hardware features.|
|Memory management is great||The memory management done on C++ is great, and this makes the applications coded in C++ very efficient in terms of memory management. Developers can also control how their coded program accesses the required memory, which makes it even more memory-efficient if coded correctly.|
There is no work done on the automatic collection of garbage data or values. The hardware security is not great when using C++. Due to this, if someone wants, they can manipulate the code to interact with the system’s hardware.
Kotlin is the backend development language that can be found in Android studio as an option. Although it was created in 2011, it is now taking over Java because now most applications are being developed using it. Another amazing thing is that now it supports cross-framework development, making it more popular and widely accepted.
|Less code is required for the development||Kotlin provides a very concise coding environment where very little code can do most of the tasks. It makes it take very little time to accomplish the tasks.|
|Java compatibility||The code requires no margining when used from Java to Kotlin or from Kotlin to Java. It makes the code works seamlessly, and developers can seamlessly use the codes of different languages to add more functionality to their applications.|
|Easy to manage||The code of Kotlin is very easy to read, edit, and understand. It makes it very fast and easy for the developers to manage and update their code.|
- There are not a lot of primitive variable types available in Kotlin. It makes managing variables throughout your code somewhat difficult. It can also cause output issues sometimes.
- The functions here also have primitive types like traditional languages. It makes it difficult for the developers who are used to other languages.
- The compilation for android applications is slower if we compare it to that of Java.
Scala is known for its property of combining functional programming and object-oriented programming. It makes it provide very concise code. JVM powers it, and that is the reason for its wide acceptance. Additionally, this language’s static types support keeps the developer free from the hassle of static types.
|Easy coding scheme||One great thing about Scala is that it combines the concept of functional programming and object-oriented programming. It means that you do not have to deal with both of these separately. It makes the programming process very easy.|
|Java compatibility||As scale works with JVM, it makes it compatible with the Java programming language. It means that whether the code is written in whatever language, it will provide the same result. It makes it a great backend development language for Java developers.|
|Concise nature||Scala code has a very concise nature of coding that makes it very easy to maintain. It makes the development and updating work very hassle-free.|
The coding approach of Scala is somewhat unconventional as compared to the traditional languages like Java. It means you might take longer than usual to get a good grip on this language.
Here the object-oriented programming and functional programming are combined. As most developers’ main concepts are based on C++, this combination of object-oriented programming and functional programming might get somewhat difficult for them.
The backend technologies of the computer world are under constant development, and here we present the backend technologies of the present world. We also sorted and presented the best 10 languages that you can use to develop your application.
With our research work’s help, we hope that now you will find it easier to select one language that meets your requirements in the best way. In this way, you will build the best backend for your application project best in terms of both performance, efficiency, and functionality.
Would you like to increase development productivity? Create a backend up to 10x faster using a backend as a service. Discover how reading the article What is a Backend as a Service.
Frequently Asked Question
The following is the answer to the most frequently asked question about the backend technologies.
What are the backends?
When we look at the code of any application, the part of code handling all the functionalities like processing of data, server-site operating, logic, and database operations is the backend of the application.
What are the best backend languages?