Top 10 Front End Programming Languages

Front-end development is one of the most important aspects of creating user-friendly applications for mobile and web applications.

Currently, there are many options when it comes to languages for front-end development, with each having its advantages and disadvantages. 

High salaries are a compelling reason for looking for a career as a front-end developer. According to Indeed, on average, a front-end developer makes $106,539 in the USA.

The choice of language directly impacts the development process, and the experience users get. But picking out a suitable one can be a challenge.

In this article, you can find some useful information about the top 10 front-end programming languages today, including their pros and cons. 

Read on to gain some insight.

What is a frontend?

A website’s or software program’s front end is the interface through which users perform key actions. A user who visits an app or browser can access different sections and functionalities. 

The front end of any website or application contains programming that makes certain features available to users. In comparison, a backend has data processing and key background functions required to make the application work. 

Advantages of frontend programming

The advantages of frontend programming include:

  • Quick Development

The main advantage of front-end programming is that it can be performed faster. The cutting-edge technological advancements and frameworks available for front-end development make tasks faster. 

As a result, creating the final product takes a lot less time. Creating a front-end for an application that already has a ready and robust backend is a fast and easy proposition. As a result, developing fully functional front-ends is rarely a challenge for experienced developers. 

  • Secure Environment

Fron-tend development is also beneficial because all front-end frameworks offer a highly secure environment for coding. It is particularly advantageous for users as they can preserve code and websites across multiple browsers. 

  • Fast Response

The new framework technology used by developers lets them easily create fast response features that facilitate the efficient reaction, response, and functioning of applications.  

Top 10 Front End Programming Languages 

These are the best ten front-end languages.

  1. HTML
  2. CSS
  3. Javascript
  4. React
  5. Vue
  6. TypeScript
  7. Elm
  8. JQuery
  9. Angular
  10. Swift

Ready to know more about each language? Keep reading.

1. Html

HTML, an abbreviation of Hypertext Markup Language, is a programming language for creating electronic documents referred to as pages featured across the web. Every page has multiple connections to hyperlinks or links to other pages. 

All web pages across the Internet have been crafted by the use of some form of HTML. It is an essential requirement for browsers to learn how to display texts or perform the loading of different elements.   

Features

  • Html is a programming language with an easy learning curve and offers easy usability.
  • The language is also platform-independent.
  • Html facilitates the easy addition of videos, images, and audio content to a web page. 
  • The language can also be used for adding hypertext content to sections of text.
  • Html is a markup language and a lot less complex than other languages. 

Advantages

  • HTML is easy to learn and use – Most developers find HTML to be one of the most easy-to-learn programming languages. Many developers are taught HTML before any other language, and it is an integral part of any development course. HTML is easy to learn as it makes use of simple tags, and there is no issue with case sensitivity.
  • HTML is free – HTML is a free language, and developers do not need to buy any software to get started with it. The language does not require users to work with any external plugins and software to access key features. This is why many businesses around the world rely on HTML for fulfilling their website design requirements. It is possible to have entire websites build in HTML. 
  • HTML offers support for multiple browsers – HTML is supported by the most widely used browsers. Hence, if a website has been written in HTML, there is no concern related to browser support. HTML websites can be optimized for the different browsers they can be loaded from. 

Disadvantages

  • Not Enough for Dynamic Pages – Using basic HTML is not enough for facilitating many of the features that modern websites offer to their users. Developers may find it difficult to add dynamic content to web pages with HTML. They are required to learn other languages such as JavaScript, PHP, or ASP. 
  • Limited for Displaying Content – HTML is also not an ideal choice for appealingly showing displayed content. This is a limitation most developers are aware of. They have to rely on CSS or Cascading Style Sheets to make HTML page content more appealing to the eye. Web designers and developers are required to create and maintain two different file sets in some cases.  

2. CSS

CSS is a programming language used for stating how documents are offered to users in terms of layout and style. A document generally refers to a text file structure utilizing a markup language such as the widely used HTML and others such as XML or SVG. 

CSS is used for converting a document to a usable form for audiences. This is particularly significant for browsers such as Chrome, Firefox, and Edge built to deliver documents onto screens, printers, and projectors visually.     

Features

  • Selectors – CSS selectors are tools for users to pick and handle different elements on a web page. They can be referred to as structural components for performing matching of attributes and attribute values. New selectors are capable of targetting pseudo-classes to style URL-targetted elements. Selectors also encompass a checked pseudo-class for styling checked elements, including radio buttons and checkboxes. 
  • Text effects and layout – CSS3 can be used for making different adjustments such as text justification change, adjusting a document’s whitespace, and word hyphenation style. 
  • First-letter and first-line pseudo-classes – CSS comes with properties that aid in adjusting character spaces to enhance the visuals effect and placing drop caps at the beginning of paragraphs. 

Advantages

  • CSS saves time − CSS code has to be written once, and the same sheet can be used across several HTML pages. A style can be defined for each HTML element, and a user can apply it for multiple web pages based on requirements.
  • Easy maintenance − CSS code is easy to maintain and users can easily make global changes to edit the style. Once changes are made, all web pages are automatically updated. 
  • Changing web standards − HTML attributes are no longer used widely as more users are gravitating towards utilising CSS. It is recommended that developers use it across HTML pages to ensure compatibility with future browser releases.

Disadvantages

  • Cross-browser problems – Making CSS changes on a website can be an easy task for developers. But, there is the need to ensure CSS compatibility after the changes have been implemented, as the user needs to check if the browsers all display the changes similarly. Checking across browsers is important as CSS functions differently across browsers. 
  • Multiple levels lead to confusion – The CSS programming language has multiple levels, making it a confusing prospect for some developers. These include CSS, CSS 2, and CSS 3, which all have slightly different specifications. 

3. JavaScript

JavaScript is a popularly used programming language that lets users implement sophisticated features on web pages.

It can be brought into action anytime a page is performing a dynamic action, such as showing periodic content updates, animated two-dimensional and three-dimensional graphics, interactive maps, video boxes, and more.

Features

  • Object-centered script language – JavaScript is an object-centered language like Visual Basic and has concepts built around the concept of objects. Object-centered languages are used widely for features such as polymorphism, through which an object can be taken in multiple forms. 
  • Client edge technology – A web browser can be referred to as a client which is utilized by a user. The data of a server is uploaded by a client and is then accessed by a user after it has been rendered. A user can use a client or browser for browsing websites and interacting with websites. 
  • Validation of user’s input – Validation of User’s Input, also known as form validation, enables users to initiate client interactions through webpage form fill-ups. The form details have to be validated by the client to validate the information provided by a user.

Advantages

  • Server load – JavaScript is a client-side language that can reduce server demands dynamically. Some applications can also require no server to function.
  • Rich interfaces – JavaScript can be utilized for developing features such as drag and drop functions for sliders. This can radically improve the user interface and user experience on a website. 
  • Extended functionality – JavaScript developers can extend web page functionality by creating JavaScript snippets for multiple third-party add-ons.

Disadvantages

  • Client-side security – JavaScript code executes on a user’s computer, often leading to security concerns due to malicious activities. It is why many developers disable JavaScript. 
  • Browser support – JavaScript can be interpreted differently based on the browser interpreting it. As a result, creating cross-browser code can be a challenge for some developers. 

4. React 

React is a programming language developed by Facebook for the creation of fast and cutting-edge web user interfaces. It is currently one of the most widely used JavaScript libraries for the creation of web front ends.

The programming language React is suitable for the creation of visual user interfaces and data rendering for browsers. 

Features

  • JSX – JSX is among the syntax extensions of JavaScript. It is utilized with React Native for describing the appearance of a user interface. Using this extension lets users create HTML structures that exist in the same file as JavaScript code. 
  • Virtual DOM – React stores a lighter version of DOM within the memory, which can be referred to as VDOM or virtual DOM. Users are able to tweak VDOM faster than DOM due to there not being a need for screen drawing. 

Advantages

  • React is an easy-to-learn language and also quite easy to use due to ample documentation, online training resources, and tutorials. Developers who are familiar with JavaScript are able to gain a thorough understanding of React in a short time. 
  • Virtual DOM is one of the key perks of the React programming language. When an application is centered around user interactions and has regular data updates, developers are able to optimize the structure to get the right performance. 

Disadvantages

  • Dynamic technology – ReactJS is a popular development choice but is also changing all the time. It raises the bar for developers who have to put in the time and effort to learn new changes.
  • Poor documentation – Some developers struggle to keep up with the frequent updates of React documentation and tools with each update. Updating oneself can be difficult if the latest documentation is not available for specific tools, leading to issues with development. 

5. Vue

Vue is a framework for the creation of user interfaces and is different from most monolithic frameworks as it has been created to deliver optimal adaptability.

The main Vue library is focused on a view layer and can be utilized easily, aside from being easily integrated with other existing project libraries.

Features

  • Virtual DOM – Vue.js utilizes virtual DOM, which is essentially a copy of the main DOM component, reacts to each DOM change, and can be availed as JavaScript data structures. JavaScript data structure progressions and changes can be compared with original data structures. The real DOM gets the final changes that users can view. 
  • Two-Way data binding – VueJS comes with two-way binding due to its MVVM architecture. Relying on the QRR helps to edit or assign HTML value attributes to accelerate HTML blocks. VueJS features two-way communication to ensure that any changes made to the UI are relayed onto the UI. 

Advantages

  • Flexibility – Vue.js is known for the level of flexibility it offers to users. Developers can create their own templates with virtual nodes in JavaScript, pure JavaScript, and HTML files. This makes Vue.js an easy-to-understand option for those developers who use JavaScript frameworks such as Angular.js and React.js.
  • Two-way communication – Vue js enables two-way communications due to its MVVM architecture and makes HTML blocks easy to handle. It has a high level of similarity with Angular.js in that aspect. Also referred to as 2-way data binding, it entails that any user interface changes made by a user get reflected in data, and any data changes are reflected in the UI. 
  • Great tooling – Vue.js is regarded as a top option for tooling and the latest Vue 3.x CLI is considered among the best JavaScript Framework tools for JavaScript framework. Developers can jump into new projects by utilising built-in features like Linting, Routing, CSS Pre-processors, State Store, Routing, PWA, TypeScript, and Unit Testing.

Disadvantages

  • Language barriers – Vue.js has certain language-related limitations that can hamper the development process. The Chinese-American origin of this app means that it exhibits a Chinese language preference over other languages. The problem arises because Chinese is not used around the world. So, the framework being in Chinese is a definite hindrance to developers. 
  • Over flexibility – The flexibility of Vue.js is also a bane for many developers and can cause an issue that requires community help to get sorted. There can be cases where the extensive flexibility of Vue.js results in more errors and unnecessary complications for users. 

6. TypeScript 

TypeScript is another of the top 10 front-end programming languages and a JavaScript syntactical superset. Any code JavaScript code is considered a valid TypeScript code, running across browsers as JS. 

TypeScript is an additive language with a simple translation layer and can be utilized in JavaScript projects.

Features

  • TypeScript is the same as JavaScript – TypeScript is quite similar to and often considered the same as JavaScript. It uses some of the components of programs that are borrowed from JavaScript. Developers need to know the workings of JavaScript to get good use of TypeScript. This is because TypeScript code is translated into JavaScript code before execution. 
  • JS library support – TypeScript offers support for JavaScript libraries, and compiled code can be adopted from any piece of JS code. JavaScript code generated from TypeScript uses all of the current JS tools, frameworks, and libraries. 
  • Rename Files – Users find renaming JavaScript files to TypeScript files quite convenient. Any .js file can easily be renamed to a .ts file and compiled with different TypeScript files. 

Advantages

  • Strict typing – In TypeScript, elements that are defined in a way remain how they were set. This is one of the most important advantages of TypeScript. 
  • Structural typing – The availability of structural typing is essential for users who intend to define used structures fully. TypeScript makes it easier for developers to rely on designated structures. 
  • Type annotations – Using TypeScript type annotations lets users explicitly specify the type that they intend to use. 

Disadvantages

  • TypeScript requires a high level of effort for code implementation.
  • Support for theoretical classes is not readily offered by TypeScript.
  • TypeScript requires a definition document for using an outsider library, and this document may not always be accessible. 
  • Developers have to be mindful of the type definition nature in TypeScript. 
  • There is a requirement for converting TypeScript to JavaScript before running a program. 

7. Elm

Elm is a functional language and framework geared towards front-end development. It is the source of the Haskell programming language and enhances the maintainability of JavaScript. 

It is one of the closest options to JavaScript and a simple development option. Elm features a framework architecture that is similar to Redux.  

Features

  • Functional – Elm offers clean functions, inputs, and outputs for the needs of developers. Users derive a predictable output for any given function input. Code reasoning becomes easier. 
  • Reactive – Elm users can define UIs with a function due to reactive programming support. They can create a reactive cycle through user action updates. 
  • Compiles to JavaScript – Elm compiles code to JavaScript for HTML and CSS creation, enabling browsers to run code. 

Advantages

  • Easy to learn – Elm is an easy-to-learn language, and developers can easily access many tips, guides, FAQs, and other resources, along with a supportive developers community. The number and variety of resources available are growing fast to aid developers. 
  • Easier project support – Elm is known for the easy project support it offers to users due to compilator warnings. The warnings stop any changes that an application cannot compile. It leads to reduced project costs. 

Disadvantages

Elm may feel restrictive to some developers who are used to dynamic languages such as JavaScript or Ruby.

In addition, Elm does not have any support for each or for loops, and users have to do with some functions. Modifying a value present within a nested structure can be a hassle, as the value cannot be mutated.

8. Angular

Angular is an open-source framework used mainly for the development of single-page web applications. Developers can rely on it for generating animated menus suitable for HTML web pages.

It is a framework developed by Google engineers Adam Abrons and Misko Hebert. First released in 2012, AngularJS keeps receiving updates. 

Features

  • Progressive web apps – Developers can use cutting-edge platform features to create similar experiences to apps. Angular offers high performance and easy installation. 
  • Angular CLI – Angular offers command-line tools to enable developers to create apps faster, add tests, and achieve fast deployment. 

Advantages

  • Out-of-the-box functionality – The default Angular setting offers a great number of tools for developers to get started with. Some of these include tools that can be used for addressing routing requirements. Developers can use it to fetch the required data they have within an app. The preconfigured nature of Angular’s environment helps to speed up both development and testing. 
  • Consistency – Angular is a comprehensive and responsive web designing framework compared to React. Developers can find it easy to develop services, components, and modules. 

Disadvantages

  • Limited SEO options – Angular users face some issues due to the fewer SEO options and do not offer a high level of search engine crawler accessibility. 
  • Angular can be complex – Angular may be considered a complex option by many developers and can impact development outcomes. Even recent versions of Angular are complex for some users. 

9. JQuery

jQuery is an objective yet feature-packed JavaScript library. It is a viable option for functions such as event handling, HTML traversal, Ajax, document manipulation, and animations.

Users also find the API of jQuery quite easy to use, and it functions in different browsers effectively. This front-end development language is known for its flexibility and range of features. It has enabled countless developers to make the most out of JavaScript programming.

Features

  • CSS manipulation: jQuery has predefined css() methods for changing HTML element style. 
  • Html manipulation: jQuery facilitates easy selection, traversing, and content modification of DOM elements.
  • Cross-browser support: jQuery provides support for the most popular modern web browsers. 

Advantages

  • jQuery enables JavaScript improvement without developers having to learn fresh syntax. 
  • Code can be simple, readable, and reusable with jQuery. 
  • The need for writing complex and repetitive loops and DOM library calls is reduced with the language. 

Disadvantages

  • Functionality may be limited – jQuery functionality can be quite limited even though it has a vast library. The problem arises when the need for customization grows, and developers have to rely on JavaScript. 
  • JQuery javascript needed – The jQuery JavaScript file is needed for executing JQuery commands. Despite the small size of this file, it is a concern for a client computer and web server when the requirement is to host jQuery scripts on the server.

10. Swift

Swift, developed by Apple back in 2014, is a suitable frontend development technology for creating iOS, tvOS, macOS, and watchOS applications.

This Objective-C alternative has many issues and is considered to be outdated. Swift does operate with some of the concepts of Objective-C, such as expandable programming. The contrast lies in static typing and protocol design.

Features

  • Swift adheres to easy and safe patterns
  • Users get access to the latest programming features
  • Objective C and Swift have the same syntax
  • It is a preferred option for writing iOS and OS X programs. 

Advantages:

  • Open-source – Swift is a truly open source development language that is known for providing open for all functionality. It currently boasts of a large community that offers support to new users, along with many convenient third-party tools. 
  • Safe – The syntax of Swift enables users to create consistent and error-free code and is thus widely preferred by developers. Swift offers many precautionary measures for error prevention and better readability.  

Disadvantages

  • No support for previous iOS versions – Swift does not provide support for older versions of iOS applications, which can be a problem for some projects. 
  • Not too popular yet – Swift is growing its user base fast, but it is not popular yet since it lacks a large base of coders. However, this can change as more developers begin using the language. 

Conclusion

The front-end development languages mentioned above are all worthy of consideration for developers.

You can explore the features, advantages, and disadvantages to figure out the best option for your specific programming needs.

The correct language can help you achieve ideal development outcomes and deliver quality user experiences.

FAQ

What is a front-end?

Front-end or frontend refers to the portion of a software application that a user can see and interact with.

What are the advantages of front-end programming?

– It pays high salaries
– Quick and secure development
– Fast responses

What are the best front-end programming languages?

– HTML
– CSS
– Javascript
– React
– Vue
– TypeScript
– Elm
– JQuery
– Angular
– Swift


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