The Best 10 Server Side Coding Languages

The Best 10 Server Side Coding Languages
Best 10 Server Side Coding Languages

This article will explore ten of the best server side coding languages. The list includes NodeJS, Kotlin, GO, Solidity, etc.

Backend programming languages are crucial to modern app development. That is why several server-side coding languages have emerged to add value to app development. 

However, the many options make it challenging for developers and businesses to select the right programming language for their app projects. In this article, we shall review the features and shortfalls of the top ten server-side coding languages today.

What is Server-Side Coding?

The server-side coding is the development assignment that controls data transactions between the database and the app interface.  

The server-side codes don’t run alone, it works in conjunction with server program, database, network protocols, and other server-side development tools.

Some of the most common server-side coding languages in the world today are Ruby, Python, PHP, Java, and JavaScript.

Types of Server-Side Coding Languages

There are two major categories of server-side coding languages which we shall discuss below:

Object-Oriented Programming (OOP)

This approach to server-side development focuses on data formations (objects) instead of logic. In contrast, functional programming refers to objects as data fields. 

When development projects are complex or require teams working together, object-oriented programming is the best approach.

Some of the commonly used object-oriented programing languages include Python, Ruby, Java, and PHP. Despite all the benefits, object-oriented programming is often criticized for its complicated coding style.  

This approach to programming takes more time to code and assemble.

Functional Programming

Functional programming is the second approach that server-side coding languages use for app development. 

This method use declarations and results rather than objects. In functional programming, declared values are immutable, so the developer can create multiple values as the need arises. 

This style is simpler, can lead to higher productivity by creating separate modules.

F#, Haskell, R, and SQL are some of the most popular server-side coding languages that apply the functional coding technique. 

However, this coping style can be challenging for beginners,  code maintenance and reusability are also drawbacks.

Top 10 Backend Languages

Developers of modern apps have access to multiple server-side coding languages for app development.  In the next section, we shall be reviewing the top 10 server-side coding languages globally.

1. JavaScript

JavaScript is useful for server-side and front-end development assignments. Having existed since 1995, JavaScript is one of the most reliable programming languages globally. JavaScript can be integrated with other programming languages like Java and PHP.

The benefits of JavaScript are many. Some of the top ones include interoperability, rich functions, and massive development resources. These and other features make it the most popular programming language globally for eight consecutive years. 

In a 2020 Stack Overflow survey, almost 70% of respondents claim to use JavaScript for development projects. 

JavaScript Features

Dynamic Data Type: JavaScript developers can reassign variables on the fly because the data types of variables are not static. For instance, you can assign the number 123 to a variable X and later reassign the string  “ABC” or an array to the same variable. In essence, when a variable is not in use, the developer can simply reassign it to another data type without declaring it expressly. This programming style reduces code, saves memory, and enhances coding procedures.

Lightweight: Since JavaScript was initially designed for performing dynamic tasks on the browser, it is lightweight and fast.  The most common usage scenario is the execution of client-side scripts. 

Asynchronous Processing: Async processing describes a code execution method where a code block does not wait for another script block to execute before running. In essence, all code blocks are executed at the same time.  This parallel code execution enhances JavaScript code execution speed.

Segmented Server Load Processing: JavaScript helps improve server performance because the scripts are run on the client-side to perform various tasks without communicating with the server. 

JavaScript Limitations

  • It does not support the development of network-aware apps.
  • Although JavaScript is fast by design, it’s the loose typing coding system causes glitches sometimes. 
  • It’s challenging to maintain codes for the server-side JavaScript development 

2. PHP

PHP has a reputation as the most widely used server-side coding technology globally.  Launched in 1997, this language has enjoyed massive adoption by developers who use it for various tasks like session control, database assignments,  eCommerce,  dynamic content, and many more. 

A recent survey by W3Tech shows that 79.2% of global websites use PHP technology. Project owners prefer using PHP as it’s fairly easy to find experience PHP developers for server-side development.

PHP Features

Simple to Code: PHP is a simple to use server-side coding language. This is one of the reasons it is widely used for web development projects. Its easier to learn PHP compared to other languages like Java. 

Platform Independent: PHP can be installed on virtually any operating system and the code runs on any modern browser irrespective of the platform.

Loosely Typed: PHP is called a “loosely type ” server-side coding language because the developer is not mandated to state the data type when declaring variables. The system recognizes the data stored and executes it accordingly. 

Interpreted Language: As an interpreted language, PHP code can run without compiling it. The PHP program interprets the code and displays the result as executes the code line by line. , sequentially.

Flexible: PHP programming schema is flexible, allowing it to work with JavaScript, PHP, and XML. A developer can build an app by embedding a PHP script inside another code or markup language.

Multiple Frameworks Option: Developers can access several PHP-based frameworks to expedite app development assignments.  Most of these frameworks use the MVC (Model View Controller) model that creates distinct structures for code functions. Some PHP frameworks include CodeIgniter, Laravel, CakePHP, and many more. 

PHP Limitations

  • As an open-source backend coding language, it is liable to abuse and exploits.
  • Not recommended for large development projects due to poor maintenance.
  • Error handling functions and dedicated libraries are unimpressive.

3. Ruby

Ruby was designed in 1995 as a scripting language by a programmer called Yukihiro Matsumoto. It eventually evolved into one of the top server-side coding languages. 

One of the main benefits of Ruby is that it can develop apps quickly due to several tools on the platform that expedite backend development procedures. Ruby has multiple libraries and active communities that support its continuous development.

Ruby Features

Mixins: This unique Ruby feature allows the combination of modules and classes. Ruby programming scheme permits the creation of modules without an instance. 

Developers can add these modules into classes, so the methods within the modules are passed over to the class. This feature works like inheritance, but it’s more flexible and easier to implement. 

Naming Convention:  Ruby has a specific naming convention for classes, variables, and others.  This convention is as follows:

  • Constants in Ruby starts with capital letters
  • A global variable starts with the dollar symbol -$
  • Instant variables start with -@
  • Class variables start with  -@@

This naming convention helps programmers to write code precisely and read them effectively. Code readability is critical in projects that require developers to work together as teams. In such a scenario, a developer needs to read and understand codes from other team members. 

Dynamic Data Types:  In Ruby, it is not necessary to define a data type when declaring a variable. Developers can use any data type as a variable. This feature allows for shorter codes and simpler coding procedures.

Ruby Limitations

Compared with other languages, Ruby’s runtime is slower. That is why complex programs written in Ruby are less responsive.

As a relatively new programming language, community support is limited. It may take some time to find a solution online while trying to resolve complex errors.

4. Python

Python is commonly used for advanced server-side coding assignments like machine learning and data analysis. It’s a high-level interpreted coding language that implements multiple coding concepts like functional programming, structured programming, and object-oriented programming. 

Python Features

Easy to Learn: One of the top features of Python is its simplicity. New developers can learn Python faster than other languages like Java, C#, and C++. Existing programmers can simply learn the Python syntax and start using the language in a few hours. 

Object-Oriented Programming:  Python developers can take advantage of its support for object-oriented programming to write structured codes with classes and objects.  This approach enhances clean code and readability.  This programming approach allows developers to write fewer lines of code to perform tasks.

Works on Multiple Platforms: Python is a portable programming language that works on multiple platforms. For instance, the same Python code can run on Linux, macOS, and Windows. 

Massive Library: Developers can access massive Python libraries that empower backend developers to add various functions to their apps.  Libraries expedite development tasks as the developer doesn’t need to write codes from scratch.  For instance, Selenium is a popular library for scraping and automation while OpenCV enhances Computer Visions projects.

Python Limitations

  • Code execution in Python is slower compared to other programming languages. Therefore, a large Python program might run sluggishly.
  • Python codes written in one version don’t run smoothly on other versions.  You will likely encounter an error, especially when using libraries. 

5. Java

Java is one of the oldest and most famous server-side coding languages that use the object-oriented programming style.  Today, Java is widely used to build enterprise apps. Thanks to its many amazing features and continued development.

Java Features

Object-Oriented Language: The object-oriented programming technique is hard-coded into the Java programming language. In essence, the use of classes is mandatory when coding in Java. The OOP programming style makes code organized and readable. 

Multiple Thread Support:  The multiple code sections written in Java can be executed simultaneously in a procedure known as multi-thread. This feature allows Java to execute code faster by managing parallel code execution efficiently.

Security: Java’s use of public keys for authentication makes it a desirable platform for building data-sensitive apps.  Java is regarded as one of the most secure server-side coding languages.

Java Limitations

  • Java code can be complex, especially in scenarios where the app is large.
  • Java apps require more memory to run. Therefore, you need high-end systems to run Java-based server applications.

6. Rust

The Rust programming language was launched in 2010 and its adoption among developers was massive. It supports multiple programming standards, just like C++, and guarantees memory safety by validating references with a borrow checker.

Rust Features

Precise Error Messages: When compared to other programming languages, Rust’s error message output is clearer and nicely formatted. The language also corrects misspellings too.

Excellent Performance: The performance of Rust is impressive when compared with other programming languages like Ruby and Python. Large programs with multiple functions will run decently fast.

Rust Limitations

Rust does not support garbage collection.

As a compiled programming language, Rust’s code needs to be compiled before it executes. Moreover, the Rust compiler takes more time compared to other languages.

7. Solidity

Solidity is a contract-based high-level server-side coding language with features for writing complex programs.  It’s a statically typed language that features supports inheritance for executing real-life scenarios.

While coding is Solidity is straightforward, learning it can be challenging to new developers.  However, if you intend to acquire blockchain and smart contract development skills, learning Solidity is a worthwhile venture. 

Solidity Features

Inheritance: Solidity implements inheritance, which allows you to use the structured form to code real-life scenarios in your apps. Such codes are easy to understand. 

String and Hash Types: Solidity developers can leverage in-built conversion functions to cross convert Strings to Hashes and vice versa.

Solidity Limitations

This server-side coding language requires the declaration of static types for variables, and the variable can no longer be used for another data type.

8. Go

The Go server-side statically typed coding language was developed in 2008. As a compiled programming language, Go works more like the C language with features like structural typing and garbage collection.

Go Features

Object-Oriented Programming: Go developers can use object-oriented programming style to create highly readable codes that support classes and inheritance. This programming method also enhances code reusability.

Testing: Go offers a feature that allows developers to troubleshoot their code and identify issues. This impressive testing feature of the Go languages makes application development more straightforward. 

Go Limitations

As a relatively new programming language, Go is considered immature as the language is yet to implement several coding concepts. 

Since Go does not provide a feature for manual memory management, the developer cannot optimize the app to use memory efficiently. This challenge can lead to overhead memory collection.

The error handling feature of Go is less than stellar, this inadequacy can be an issue for developers and app users. 

9. Kotlin

Kotlin is famous among developers for its interoperability with Java and its use in Android app development.  Kotlin code can run seamlessly in Java, and vice versa.

Kotlin Features

Java Interoperability: Kotlin works seamlessly with Java, which is widely used for Android app development. Therefore, you can use this language to add features to existing Java Android apps.

Efficiency: Compared to other programming languages, Kotlin is highly efficient. Complex apps built with Kotlin run efficiently, increasing the reliability of Kotlin apps.

Kotlin Limitations

  • Since Kotlin is a relatively new programming language, developers using this language are limited. It can be challenging to find a developer to manage or update an app developed in Kotlin.
  • Fixing issues with Kotlin code can be challenging.

10. NodeJS

NodeJS is arguably the most popular JavaScript-based server-side development framework. It creates value for JavaScript developers by empowering them to write server-side codes. It’s open-source and supports cross-platform development. 

Data from W3Tech indicates that 1.3% of global websites use NodeJS for their server-side coding language.

NodeJS Features

Object-Oriented Programming: Since NodeJS is based on JavaScript, it essentially supports the concept of object-oriented programming.  So developers can use classes and inheritance while writing codes. This approach to development increases the readability and reusability of codes.

Efficient: NodeJS works faster than most other server-side coding languages. In essence, even a complicated program will execute fast on a NodeJS powered backend. This fast response makes NodeJS a reliable choice for web app development. 

NodeJS Limitations

NodeJS apps only use a single-threaded event loop model, it does not support multi-threaded event response stateless mode.  This shortfall may degrade performance in large apps since a single thread will be used while running the program.


This article reviewed the top 10 server-side coding languages worldwide with a focus on the features and limitations of each coding language.  Consider the feature of each platform and select the best option for your server-side development project.


What is Server-Side Development?

All server-side operations and interactions between the browser and database are referred to as backend development.

What are the types of server-side programming languages?

The two categories of server-side coding language are Object-Oriented Programming and  Functional Programming

What are the best ten backend programming languages?

– Node JS
– Kotlin
– Go 
– Solidity
– Rust
– Java
– Python
– Ruby
– Javascript

Leave a reply

Your email address will not be published.