The Best Backend Coding Languages in 2024

Whether you are a novice coder or an experienced developer, you must know the client-side and backend development concepts.

These development sides have their own series of technologies. Likewise, CSS, JS, TypeScript, and HTML are renowned frontend languages. However, the selection of backend coding languages is a challenge.

Indeed, while employing a backend language, it is essential to know it is compatible with your frameworks, databases, and server technologies.

Moreover, the learning curve, performance, supportive toolsets, and reliability also matter when it comes to finding perfect server-side coding languages.

So, in this article, we share one of the best backend coding languages with all their details.

Let’s begin!

1. JavaScript – The Versatile Leader

JavaScript is one of the most frequently used backend coding languages, and it was founded in 1995.

Indeed, according to a survey by Stack Overflow, JavaScript has topped the charts as the most renowned technology for the last eleven years. 

Besides, this JIT-compiled scripting technology is not only popular for server-side programming but also has a strong footprint for frontend development.

As we begin from backend development, the role of JavaScript has become significant for building backends since the arrival of Node.js. 

Yes, Node.js is a runtime JS environment that you can operate in the absence of a web browser.

In addition, it is easier to craft APIs and web app backends using JS and Node.js with a framework called Express.js.

Please read the article How to Build and Deploy a JavaScript Application for more information on this subject.

The powerful backing of these modern server-side technologies makes JS a leading language in our list.

Let’s have a look at the key benefits of backend coding with JS:

  • JavaScript works as a unified scripting language, so dev teams can conveniently utilize it to distribute code between server and client. 
  • Its asynchronous nature lets apps deal with diversified functions all at once. Fortunately, execution tasks remain continuous. 
  • This lightweight backend coding language is also popular because of its object-oriented programming, dynamic typing, client-side validation, and ample community support.
  • The vibrant ecosystem, fast development, seamless interactions with databases, and code reusability are further advantages of using JavaScript.

JS Frameworks for Backend Development – Node.js, Express.js, Deno, Next.js and Meteor

Apps using JavaScript on the Backend – PayPal, Uber, Netflix, Mozilla and LinkedIn

2. Python – The Multi-faceted Language

Python is an incredible object-oriented programming language popular for its amazing support for IoT, machine learning, and data science projects.

Google uses Python as one of its basic backend technologies, along with C++ and Java. Similarly, the TIOBE Index gives Python the 1st rank with 16.41% ratings and +1.90% change.

It is seamless for startups to use Python for their prototypes and then scale the project to larger levels. You can employ frameworks like Flask and Django to craft one of the finest web applications with Python. 

Understandable syntax and simple integration with other scripting technologies make it a smart choice. Moreover, this general-purpose language is the first choice of dev teams because of its built-in tools, libraries, and backing for GUI programming.  

Please read the article How to build and deploy a Python app for more information on this subject.

Let’s dive into the benefits of Python for server-side scripting:

  • Python utilizes open-source and free-to-use frameworks. Likewise, if you need a full-stack Python framework for quick development and scalability, you can choose Django, Pyramid, or Web2Py. You can also adopt Flask and Bottle as micro-frameworks.
  • This coding language supports procedural and object-oriented programming, which makes it a versatile technology.
  • Its interpreted nature makes the debugging chores super fast.
  • Understandable data structures, ample community support, portability, and dynamic typing are further advantages of using Python. 

Python Frameworks for Backend Coding – Django, Web2Py, Pyramid, Flask, and Bottle 

Apps using Python on the Backend – Instagram, Google, Amazon, Reddit and Uber

3. PHP – The Scripting Standard

PHP is very significant when it comes to backend programming for web applications. Indeed, around 76.3% of websites rely on PHP for server-side scripting, according to W3Techs.

This HTML-embedded technology is still popular for crafting CRMs, dynamic web pages, and applications.

Besides, PHP is also broadly used to develop templates and plugins for eCommerce sites and CMSs like WordPress, Magento, and Drupal. As a cross-platform language, you can easily run scripts on multiple operating systems. 

On the other hand, if we discuss PHP frameworks, you will find a big list. Likewise, beginners can choose CodeIgniter and Laravel to build lightspeed and secure backends with PHP.

However, you can also pick Symfony if you need component settings and appropriate documentation. 

Here are the leading advantages of using PHP as a server-side technology:

  • PHP utilizes its memory, which is why it loads very quickly. This feature also backs the scalability capability of websites. 
  • If you are a novice developer and want to master a programming language, you must consider PHP. It is an easy-to-learn and beginner’s favorite language because of its simple rules and understandable syntax.
  • Commendable database support is another advantage of using PHP. It backs multiple DBs, including MySQL, Oracle, PostgreSQL, and SQLite.
  • Active community support, pre-installed debugging constants, and smooth combination with other languages are pros of using PHP.

PHP Frameworks for Backend Coding – Laravel, CakePHP, CodeIgniter, and Symfony

Apps using PHP on the Backend – Flickr, Mailchimp, Etsy, Slack and Tumblr

4. Java – The Enterprise Favorite

Java is another renowned backend coding language that follows object-oriented programming.

Founded in 1995, Java is an exemplary solution for building enterprise-grade applications. Similarly, you can also use Java to script gaming and mobile and desktop apps.

This language permits you to pursue WORA or write once, run anywhere approach. By following this paradigm, you just have to compile the script once, and then, you can run it on distinct platforms without assembling the code again. 

Furthermore, as a machine-independent language, it lets you arrange the script into a byte code. Then, you can operate the code on a Java Virtual Machine without basic infrastructure.

Let’s have a look at the key capabilities of Java:

  • Developers can accomplish several threads in a coexisting manner because of Java’s multithreading feature. This feature also expands the CPU utilization.
  • Java is a platform-independent technology, so you can easily use it on any operating system.
  • This language has a powerful memory management system. So, you don’t have to manage the exceptions and approach the memory through code. 
  • Dynamic typing, active community support, and a standard library are additional benefits of Java.

Java Frameworks for Backend Coding – Spring, Hibernate, Struts and Grails

Apps using Java on the Backend – LinkedIn, Microsoft, NASA, Netflix and Yahoo

5. C# – Microsoft’s Backbone

C# is one of the finest server-side languages with robust Microsoft backing. Indeed, this high-level, object-oriented language was made public by Microsoft in 2000.

So, you can conveniently utilize C Sharp with the .Net framework and Windows operating system.

Also, it is compatible with other operating systems like Android, iOS, macOS, and Linux. Correspondingly, C# is considered an ideal choice for building gaming applications with Unity and Xamarin.   

Its simple syntax and fast execution make it a worthy solution for beginners. Mainly, you need to understand the small sets of C# so it becomes seamless for students to start practicing the code.

In addition, if you are already familiar with C++ and C, it would be easier to begin coding with C#.

Here are the core functionalities and pros of using C# for backend programming:

  • C# is an advanced programming language that lets developers erase old files and replace them with upgraded ones. This trait also enables the automated scaling of applications.
  • With ready-to-use library functions and less execution and compilation time, it becomes ultrafast to script backends with C-Sharp. 
  • C# is a structured and logical language that authorizes you to divide the code into small subsets. These modules are named functions and procedures. This way, you can write, read, debug, run, and maintain the C# code in the breeze.
  • Pre-install garbage collection, excellent documentation, and interoperability make C# more reliable for backend development.

C# Frameworks for Backend Coding – Blazor, .NET, ASP.NET Core and ASP.NET MVC

Apps using C# on the Backend – MarketWatch, Trustpilot, Stack Overflow, and Microsoft

6. SQL – The Language of Databases

SQL, or Structured Query Language, is another server-side programming technology used for backlogging and refining data in a relational DB.

Released in 1974, SQL is known for gathering, updating, deleting, retrieving, and querying data from databases.

Structured Query Language not only assists database managers but also aids dev teams in scripting data integration codes.

Likewise, developers can insert SQL inquiries with Java and Python to craft high-speed, data-centric applications. In this regard, you can employ SQL databases such as PostgreSQL, MySQL, and Oracle.

Contrarily, if we discuss the learning curve, SQL is an easy-to-learn language similar to English syntax. The majority of the world’s most renowned DBMSs, like Oracle, MySQL, SQL Server, and PostgreSQL, are based on SQL, according to a recent survey of Statista

Let’s delve into the major advantages of SQL:

  • SQL prevents all types of unauthorized access to keep the data secure. Hereof, it lets the developers fully customize the access controls and apply the encryption.
  • This database language offers a large number of directives to transform and elaborate the data. In this regard, you can easily query, modify, add, delete, filter, and join the datasets.
  • High portability is another appealing benefit of using SQL. This language permits you to use the same code for multiple database management systems without any change.
  • SQL is also a valuable backend language due to its high availability, open-source nature, and ample community and documentation support. 

SQL Frameworks for Backend Coding – SQLAlchemy, ActiveRecord, Hibernate and Entity Framework

Companies using SQL on the Backend – Biting Bit, Rakam, VTS, Flipkart and Instagram

7. Ruby – The Developer’s Delight

Ruby is an open-source, object-oriented, and functional programming language that Yukihiro Matsumoto introduced in 1995.

Using Ruby would be very beneficial if you utilize it along with the framework Rails or Ruby on Rails. Yes, you must write small codes when using Ruby with Rails framework.

This language doesn’t communicate with hardware instances compared to C and C++. You simply need to script it to a text file.

Then, an interpreter analyzes this file and converts it into code. The procedural attribute of Ruby also makes it easy to understand and readable.

On the other hand, if we talk about its uses, Ruby is perfect for creating web, desktop, and static sites and applications. You can also leverage Ruby to conduct data processing, crawling, web scraping, and building automation tools on the fly.

Here are the leading pros of using Ruby for backend development:

  • Ruby is known for its ultrafast development. It emphasizes enhancing developers’ productivity to speed up the development cycle. Moreover, the convention-over-configuration (CoC) paradigm and readable syntax help in speeding up the development.
  • Ruby is rich in libraries called Gems. These are open-source and confer excellent support for building web applications with RoR. Similarly, it has an active community support.
  • It is an ideal coding language for beginners, startups, and prototypes. In this regard, Ruby lets the developers quickly deploy, test, and debug applications.
  • Cross-platform programming, garbage collection, duck & dynamic typing, and high scalability are advantages of using Ruby for server-side development.

Ruby Frameworks for Backend Coding – Ruby on Rails, Camping, Sinatra and Ramaze

Apps using Ruby on the Backend – GitHub, Fiverr, Airbnb, Twitch and Shopify

8. Golang (Go) – The Modern Contender

Golang or Go is an open-source, statically typed, and compiled backend coding language that Google made public in 2009.

Go is typically used for web development, cloud-based programming, microservices, and networking projects. 

Especially if you want structural typing, memory efficiency & safety, garbage collection, and concurrency, you must employ Golang.

If we talk about its syntax, it was designed after the C language. That is why Go has readable and shortcodes that help speed up the dev operations. 

Similarly, if you are already working with Ruby and Python, it will be seamless for you to learn this one of the most desired programming languages.

Indeed, Stack Overflow’s survey claims that Go is one of the prominent technologies developers want to use.

Please read the article How to build and deploy a Go application for more information on this subject.

Read the following benefits of working with Golang:

  • Exceptional concurrency support is one of the leading advantages of using Golang. This language relies on Channels and Goroutines to ensure the execution of numerous threads simultaneously. Go also consumes less memory because of the lightweight nature of Goroutines.
  • Out-of-the-box performance is another attribute of Go. Hereof, Golang doesn’t own any VM or Virtual Machine. The Go compiler interprets the script into machine code with zero configuration.
  • Go is a modern language, which is why it provides excellent support for scaling. Yes, you can extend backend resources for your application anytime while using Golang.
  • Straightforward documentation, effortless maintenance, and excellent compatibility with low-code cloud computing platforms are also benefits of employing Go.

Golang Frameworks for Backend Coding – Gin Gonic, Beego, Echo and Go-Fiber

Apps using Go on the Backend – Monzo, SoundCloud, Badoo, Dropbox and Uber

9. Perl – The Old School Powerhouse

Perl is another open source similar to the C coding language on our list. Founded in 1987, Perl was initially released to manipulate the scripts.

However, this stable backend technology is now utilized for building web & GUI projects. Besides, Perl is valuable for networking and system administration chores.

Contrarily, if we talk about popularity, Perl is less trendy than you find Python or Ruby. That is why it could be troublesome for businesses to find ample community support and seasoned Perl developers easily. Moreover, it is also arduous to find alternatives to Perl.

However, you can employ Perl if you want a language to support Unix and Shell projects and deal with system administration and text-processing tasks.

Let’s elaborate on the major benefits of Perl:

  • Although Python has advantages over Perl but, when it comes to security flaws, Perl has an edge. Indeed, Perl is an old but highly secure coding language with minimal errors.
  • Perl owns a large set of pre-installed libraries, tools, and APIs. You can use these built-in capabilities to examine and manipulate files and communicate with databases. 
  • Perl automatically administers the memory because of its loosely typed nature. Therefore, its interpreter is already aware of data types and has the ability to allow data quickly.
  • Unicode backing, multiple programming styles, cross-platform support, and typecasting are additional pros of programming with Perl.

Perl Frameworks for Backend Coding – Catalyst, Dancer, Mojolicious, and Interchange

Apps using Perl on the Backend – SendGrid, Buscape, Venmo and Zoopla

10. Rust – The Safe and Fast

Rust is an advanced backend coding language that was officially released in 2015. In the beginning, Rust was designed to craft high-performing applications.

Actually, programmers faced void memory access problems with C++ and C language. 

So, with absolute performance, memory management, and concurrency, Rust has been introduced as an alternative.

Rust is also one of the most admired and desired scripting technologies, according to the report by Stack Overflow. That is why you can choose Rust without any hesitation.

On the other hand, if we talk about its usage, Rust is suitable for developing networking, browser, gaming, and data science applications. 

Look at the key capabilities of Rust:

  • Rust is an advanced approach for building complex, enterprise-grade, and data-intensive applications. Features like concurrency, low overhead, and swift extensibility make Rust an appropriate option for heavy applications.  
  • It is simple to integrate Rust code with C language projects. Rust has an ‘efficient C bindings’ trait that makes it compatible with C technology dev tasks.
  • Rust is also popular because of zero or no abstraction. It signifies that coders can mask the inlying credentials of the script easily.
  • Improved error messaging, pattern matching, and protected memory allocation are also pros of developing backends with Rust.

Rust Frameworks for Backend Coding – Actix, Axum, Tauri, and Gotham

Apps using Rust on the Backend – Cloudflare, Mozilla, Figma and Discord

11. Kotlin – The Java Alternative

Are you seeking a novel alternative to Java? If yes, you must consider Kotlin. It is a high-level, general-purpose, and object-oriented language compatible with Android, JVM, and Java class libraries. 

Released in 2011, Kotlin could be a top-notch coding language for developing Android, Linux, iOS, web, and data science applications. However, if your goal is server-side development, you should use Kotlin as a replacement for Java or utilize it with Java code. 

Kotlin has clean and functional code, so it is the first choice of novice developers. You also don’t have to add semicolons at the end of every script line while using this language, which is a big relief.  

Let’s overview the core benefits and features of Kotlin:

  • Kotlin proved itself to be a very reliable backend language for Android applications. In this regard, connecting Kotlin code with Android SDK, Android Studio, Android libraries, and Jetpack is seamless. 
  • This language relies on a type check to prevent errors and bugs at early stages.
  • Kotlin is an open-source scripting technology, which is why it provides excellent documentation support. Similarly, it has a smaller community than Java, but you will find these communities very cooperative. 
  • With Kotlin, you will have to write the minimum code that is more readable. This feature improves the productivity of developers.

Kotlin Frameworks for Backend Coding – Spring Boot, Quarkus, Micronaut, and Ktor

Apps using Kotlin on the Backend – Duolingo, Reddit, Lyft, Evernote, and Trello

12. C++ – The Performance Champion

C++ is a structured, general-purpose coding language that follows multiple style types, including functional, procedural, and OOP.

This C-family technology is beneficial for building high-performing enterprise-grade applications on the fly.

With C++, dev teams have the authority to outline the data types and maneuver them through distinct functions.

It also enables you to approach the memory and quickly compute code. If we discuss the major field where you can use C++, gaming applications are at the top.

Correspondingly, you can effectively utilize C++ to create system software, operating systems, embedded systems, databases, and VR applications.  

Let’s discuss the key pros of C++:

  • C++ has a rich ecosystem. You can seamlessly find supportive libraries, third-party tools, and further resources to support your project. 
  • As a structured language, it divides complicated programs into small components named functions. So, developers can smoothly deal with data with these functions. 
  • The availability of STL or Standard Template Library offers pre-scripted codes to programmers. In this way, they can quickly benefit from these ready-to-use codes and save lots of time.
  • Robust compilation, scalability, and improved memory management are also advantages of C++.

C++ Frameworks for Backend Coding – Beast, ACE, Qt, and CAFFE 

Apps using C++ on the Backend – Adobe Photoshop, Spotify, MS Office, YouTube and Google 

13. Express.js – The Node.js Framework

Express.js, or Express, is a renowned server-side framework for Node.js, which was founded in 2010.

As a powerful part of the JavaScript ecosystem, Express is typically used to build highly scalable single-page, dynamic, streaming, fintech, and real-time applications.

In this regard, you should employ an open-source stack called MEVN. Indeed, this stack lets developers use free technologies like Express, Node.js, and Vue.js to develop powerful applications.

However, Express.js is not only compatible with NoSQL DBs, but you can also adopt SQL databases like MySQL for your projects.

Please read the article How to deploy an Express.js application for more information on this topic.

Let’s delve into the features of Express for backend development:

  • Express.js is a robust and extensible Node.js framework. It has a wide range of toolsets for routing, web development, HTTP requests, and middleware. So, you can create small to enterprise-grade apps quickly.
  • This framework relies on V8 engine packages for deploying and creating highly interactive and real-time applications.
  • Improved customization is another advantage of using Express. It is an unopinionated backend technology, which is why you can tailor the apps seamlessly.
  • The presence of templating engines and uncomplicated debugging are also its major characteristics.

Apps using Express.js on the Backend – Paytm, Trustpilot, Oxylabs, and X

14. Scala – The Functional and Object-Oriented Hybrid

Scala is an object-oriented, general-purpose server-side language initially released in 2004. This language was built to deal with the drawbacks of Java.

It lets you compile the code to JS or Java bytecode and operate it on JVM or in a browser. 

In this way, Scala optimizes the computation and improves the overall efficiency of the dev process. You can use Scala for data-intensive and large-scale applications.

Undoubtedly, it is quick to scale applications using Scala. 

Here are the core benefits of Scala:

  • Scala is popular because it uses a smaller number of code lines. Likewise, Scala has the ability to craft a program in 3 lines that Java creates into 9 lines. 
  • This static programming language is structured to lower the repetition of code. 
  • Scala’s learning curve is simple, mainly if you are associated with OOP or have worked with Java or C languages.
  • Pattern matching, security, and Mixins also make Scala a trusted solution for backend programming.

Scala Frameworks for Backend Coding – Play Framework, Lift and Scalatra

Apps using Scala on the Backend – DeliveryHero, Nubank, Coursera, 9GAG, and Monzo

15. Node.js – JavaScript’s Server-Side Star

Node.js is a multiplatform, open-source JS runtime environment that first appeared in 2009.

This backend technology is designed on top of a V8 engine and is known for conducting robust executions. Moreover, developers can employ various npm packages to perform different functionalities.

Regarding its usage, Node.js is famous for crafting real-time, data-intensive web applications. It is also an appropriate option for building video streaming applications because of its ability to deal with a large number of concurrent connections. 

Read the core attribute of Node.js here:

  • Node.js is event-driven and asynchronous. It means this runtime environment doesn’t wait for the creation of one API before moving to the next one. Hereof, it follows an event-driven approach to monitor this API development process. That is why you can call them non-blocking APIs.
  • Businesses also like adopting Node.js because of its scalable nature. 
  • NodeJS is ideal for programming engineers who want to work with JavaScript technologies. 
  • No buffering, high performance, and a lean learning curve are also advantages of using Node.js. 

Node.js Frameworks for Backend Development – Express.js, Koa.js, Meteor.js and Nest.js

Apps using Node.js on the Backend – LinkedIn, Netflix, PayPal, Mozilla and Uber

Things to Consider for Choosing the Right Language

Several factors matter when it comes to choosing the right backend coding language. Some of them are here:

  • Project Requirements – It is crucial to know the top requirements of your project. Likewise, how much scalability do you need? Does the selected language fulfill your security, reliability, and performance-related demands? You must sum up these requirements and analyze them carefully. 
  • Developer Skills – It is also significant whether your dev team would like to work with your chosen technology or not. You must take their opinion. 
  • Learning Curve – Businesses should also consider the learning curve of server-side languages while choosing them. 
  • Ecosystem & Community – Employing languages with ample community support and a rich ecosystem is always advised. 

Market demands, scalability, personal preference, and global & local trends are also significant for selecting the right coding language. 


This article presents one of the most reliable backend coding languages with all their strengths.

For example, if you use JS for client-side programming and are willing to use the same technology, JavaScript, Node.js, and Express.js should be your choice.

On the other hand, if you need powerful server-side languages with a rich ecosystem, you can use Python, Ruby, and Java. C++ could be a better choice for building gaming and graphics apps. 

All in all, this guide discusses all options in detail. Therefore, you can select the most appropriate option. 

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